The Institute’s publications include Inny świat (A World Apart) by Gustaw Herling-Grudziński, Kosmos (Cosmos) by Witold Gombrowicz, Gucio zaczarowany (Gucio Enchanted) by Czesław Miłosz, and excerpts from the memoirs of Arthur Koestler.
An “Open Letter to the Party” is circulated by Jacek Kuroń and Karol Modzelewski. Both are given three-year prison sentences. The official line on Kultura, as voiced by Wiesław Górnicki in Życie Warszawy (Warsaw Life): “These Kultura people are just a handful of sneaky types for whom everything that is Polish remains essentially alien”.
Winston Churchill dies. India and Pakistan at war over Kashmir. Rhodesia breaks with United Kingdom. Second Vatican Council closes. West Germany and Israel establish diplomatic relations. Watts race riots in the USA. 190,000 American combat troops enter Vietnam.