Gustaw Herling-Grudziński resumes his association with the Institute and becomes Kultura’s Italian correspondent. The Institute publishes the “Open Letter to the Party”, and also the conciliatory “Pastoral Letter of the Polish Bishops to their German Brethren”. Other publications include Dziennik (Diary) 1961–1966 and Operetka (Operetta) by Witold Gombrowicz, and Piękni dwudziestoletni (Beautiful Twenty-Year-olds) by Marek Hłasko.
Leszek Kołakowski is expelled from the communist party after his censure of Gomułka in a lecture delivered on the tenth anniversary of the Polish October. Many writers and intellectuals resign from the party in solidarity. Celebration of 1,000 years of Christianity in Poland.
France withdraws its forces from NATO command and asks non-French NATO troops to leave France. Indira Gandhi becomes Indian prime minister. Andrei Sinyavsky and Yuli Daniel are sent to labour camps in the USSR. Mao Zedong initiates the Cultural Revolution. The Catholic Church abolishes the Index of Forbidden Books. London becomes the swinging capital of the world.