Paris “Kultura” logo 19 November 2019

1969

Marek Hłasko dies in Wiesbaden, Witold Gombrowicz in Vence, Jerzy Stempowski in Bern. The Institute’s publications include Rozmowy z Gombrowiczem (Conversations with Witold Gombrowicz) by Dominique de Roux, Nie trzeba głośno mówić (No Need to Speak Aloud) by Józef Mackiewicz, Upiory rewolucji (Phantoms of the Revolution) by Gustaw Herling-Grudziński, Widzenia nad Zatoką San Francisco (Visions from San Francisco Bay) and Miasto bez imienia (City Without a Name) by Czesław Miłosz, and Motory i hamulce socjalizmu (The Engines and Brakes of Socialism) by Władysław Bieńkowski.
 
POLAND
Twenty-five years of communist Poland. Student leaders’ trials in the aftermath of the March Events. Józef Cyrankiewicz becomes prime minister for the fifth time.
 
WORLD
On his expulsion from the Union of Soviet Writers, Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn writes them an open letter: “... Your clocks are running late in relation to the time we live in. Draw back those thick curtains you so like to live behind and see something you don’t even suspect is happening. Outside, dawn is breaking ...”. Apollo 11 – Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to set foot on the Moon. Self-immolation of Jan Palach. Richard Nixon is inaugurated US president. Willy Brandt is elected West German chancellor. Golda Meir becomes prime minister of Israel. Woodstock Festival in the USA. 
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