On the twentieth anniversary of Kultura, Adam and Lidia Ciołkosz receive the Kultura Prize for their Outline History of Polish Socialism, Piotr Guzy for his Krótki żywot bohatera pozytywnego (Short Life of a Positive Hero), and Paweł Hostowiec (Jerzy Stempowski) for his whole oeuvre. The Institute’s publications include Polityczne neurozy (Political Neuroses) by Juliusz Mieroszewski, Widziane z góry (Seen from Above) by Tomasz Staliński (Stefan Kisielewski), Wielka czystka (The Great Purge) by Aleksander Weissberg-Cybulski, and Życie towarzyskie i uczuciowe (Social and Emotional Life) by Leopold Tyrmand.
The Polish People’s Republic severs diplomatic relations with Israel. Official visit of Charles de Gaulle in Poland.
Stalin’s daughter Svetlana defects to the West. Death of Konrad Adenauer. Colonels take power in Greece. Arab-Israeli Six-day War. Race riots break out in several American cities. Che Guevara is shot dead in Bolivia. Dr Christian Barnard performs first successful human heart transplant on Louis Washkansky in Cape Town.