The Literary Institute is incorporated as a limited company in France and becomes independent of the Libella publishing house. It is only due to Jerzy Giedroyc’s pre-war Legion d’Honneur that he – a foreigner – can set up a limited company in France.
The Institute’s publications include Róża Luksemburg a Rewolucja Rosyjska (Rosa Luxemburg and the Russian Revolution) by Adam Ciołkosz, Eseje dla Kassandry (Essays for Cassandra) by Paweł Hostowiec (Jerzy Stempowski), Żydzi w kulturze polskiej (Jews in Polish Culture) by Aleksander Hertz, Pisma ostatnie (Last Writings) by Andrzej Stawar, and vol. 1 of Historia Polski (History of Poland) by Paweł Zaremba. Andrzej Bobkowski dies in Guatemala.
The population exceeds 30 million. The Wawel tapestries are returned to Kraków.
John F. Kennedy is inaugurated as US president. Stalin’s remains are removed from the Lenin Mausoleum in Red Square. Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man to go into outer space. Berlin Wall is erected. USSR explodes 50 megaton bomb.