Czesław Miłosz leaves France for the USA where from 1961 he becomes professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures at the University of California (Berkeley). First Russian-language issue of Kultura is published. The Institute’s publications include Skrzydła ołtarza (Wings of an Altarpiece) by Gustaw Herling-Grudziński, Oko (The Eye) by Józef Czapski, Pornografia (Pornography) by Witold Gombrowicz, Piotruś (Little Peter) by Leo Lipski, and Brave New World Revisited by Aldous Huxley.
Attempts by the authorities to remove a wooden cross from the new town of Nowa Huta trigger demonstrations that are brutally suppressed by the militia. First screening of Aleksander Ford’s Knights of the Teutonic Order, which remains one of the most attended Polish films.
American U2 spy plane is shot down over Russia and pilot is imprisoned. Adolf Eichmann is captured and brought to Israel to stand trial. Sino-Soviet rift. Deaths of Albert Camus and Boris Pasternak.