In issue no. 204, Kultura publishes the “Letter of the 34” and an article by Gaston de Cerizay (Stanisaw Cat-Mackiewicz) entitled “Polska Gomułki” (Gomułka’s Poland). The Institute’s publications include Brudne czyny (Dirty Deeds) and Wszyscy byli odwróceni (All Their Backs were Turned) by Marek Hłasko, Kufer na plecach (With a Trunk on My Back) by Kazimierz Wierzyński, Moje wspomnienia (My Memories) Vols. I–III by Wincenty Witos, and Ewolucjonizm (Evolutionism) by Juliusz Mieroszewski.
Protest “Letter of the 34” calling for curbs on censorship are sent to Prime Minister Cyrankiewicz. Melchior Wańkowicz (a signatory of the letter) is jailed for 18 months. Karol Wojtyła becomes archbishop of Kraków. First Oder Jazz Festival held in Wrocław.
Beginning of Vietnam War. Nikita Khrushchev is deposed, Leonid Brezhnev assumes power in the USSR. China explodes A-Bomb. Death of Pandit Nehru. Bob Dylan and the Beatles gain following on both sides of the Atlantic.